Excess weight, dietary habits and vitamin D and Omega-3 fatty acid status in pregnancy
Nutrition during pregnancy affects the health of the mother and of the offspring. Increased weight before pregnancy, high gestational weight gain, and inadequate gestational nutrition has a negative effect on pregnancy outcomes. It promotes gestational diabetes, preeclampsia and eclampsia, higher Cesarean section rates, and excess weight after delivery. In newborns it increases life-long risk of developing metabolic diseases, and impairs brain development and cognitive function. Multiple micronutrient deficiencies, including vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids, may coexist especially in pregnant women with excess weight. Obesity in women is an emerging problem in Latvia. Health behavior, including surveys of dietary habits, have been conducted on the general population of Latvia, but there is a lack of data on pregnant women. The study is needed to estimate the current situation regarding nutrition in pregnant women in Latvia. The aim of study is to investigate the prevalence of excess weight, related dietary habits, physical activity and omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin D status in pregnant women in Latvia. The results of the project will provide new knowledge about the maternal nutritional status in Latvia and help to identify the main nutritional risk factors for both mother and child. This will help create targeted strategy for intervention to improve the health of both mother and child on all levels – individual, organisational and political.