Historical Collection of Teaching and Scientific Aids
The premises of the Rīga Stradiņš University (RSU) Institute of Anatomy and Anthropology (IAA) Exposition houses noteworthy collections of anatomical, histological and embryological preparations and anatomical replicas created by Professor Pauls Stradiņš and his students (from 1926 to the 1960s), the RSU Department of Pathology, BKUS and IAA under the guidance of Professor Māra Pilmane.
The exposition opened in 2003 in honour of the 83rd anniversary of higher medical education in Latvia. The Exposition has over 1000 exhibits, including tissues affected by different diseases, congenital anomalies and other pathologies, and interested persons from all over the country and other countries of the world visit the exposition on a regular basis. Thus, 3038 persons have visited the exposition in three years, from 2014 to 2016. 149 Latvian schools have made trips to the exposition, and the income of the exposition amounted to 4985 euro.
The first exhibit in the AAI collection dates back to the end of the 18th century, but the first exhibit from the collection of P. Stradiņš – to 1926. The collection gives insight into bone, skin, internal organ, tumour diseases, structural changes in organs and shape variations. Individual preparations reflect consequences of bad habits (smoking, alcohol and other) or work conditions. The collection of embryos and foetuses collected by AAI and prof. M. Pilmane reflects consequences of pregnancy complications on embryos and congenital anomalies in different systems of organs. The collection is a perfect complement to training materials for pupils, students and other interested persons and promotes understanding about the structure and development of the human body, as well as the factors which may affect this.
- Number of preparations
All preparations of the exposition 1735 Formalin preparations (from the collection of prof. Pauls Stradiņš and his contemporaries) 927 Replicas (from the collection of prof. Pauls Stradiņš and his contemporaries) 79 Formalin preparations (from the collection of the Institute of Pathology of the Soviet Union Clinical University Hospital) 505 Collection of Prof. Anatolijs Ameļins (glasses) 135 Exhibition of kidney stones 4 (total number of trays in boxes – 97) Exhibition of gallstones 25 Bone specimen (spine, bone fragments) 36 Other specimen (foreign bodies surgically removed from children, plates with bone development, cross-sections, two-headed calf) 21 Embryological specimen (including from the collection of the Institute of Pathology of the Soviet Union Clinical University Hospital and prof. Pauls Stradiņš and his contemporaries) 80; individual organ development stages – 9; replicas on development – 23; Siamese twins – 2; still undescribed – 7
- Formalin preparations
From the collection of prof. Pauls Stradiņš and his contemporaries
- Pathologies of digestive system organs: gastric ulcers, perforations, gastric cancer, atrophic mucosa; lesions in the small and large bowel; colorectal cancer; hepatic cirrhosis, malignant tumours in the liver, metastases in the liver; oesophageal lesions, strictures; malignant tumours in the pancreas, necrotising pancreatitis, etc.
- Pathologies of the system of respiratory organs: malignant tumours in the lungs and larynx; changes in the lungs induced by tuberculosis; lungs affected by pneumonia, bronchiectases
Pathologies of the urinoexcretory system: kidney stones, hydronephrosis, lesions in kidneys caused by tuberculosis, polycystic kidney disease; benign and malignant kidney tumours; urinary bladder cancer; inflammation of the urinary bladder
- Pathologies of the system of locomotor organs and skin: bone fractures; osteomyelitis; benign and malignant bone tumours; extremities affected by injuries, burns, cold injuries, cicatricial tissues and ulcers
- Other preparations: brain injuries, tumours, strokes; pathologies of the thyroid gland and other endocrine glands – tumours, inflammations; teratomas, congenital pathologies; benign and malignant tumours, metastases; pathologies of the cardiovascular system, aneurisms, etc.
From the collection of the Institute of Pathology of Pauls Stradiņš Clinical University Hospital
- Cardiovascular pathologies: myocardial infarction, pericarditis, endocarditis, aneurysms, atherosclerosis, etc.
- Liver and other digestive system organ pathologies: liver cysts, liver injuries, ruptures, liver tumours, liver metastases, cirrhosis of the liver; stomach ulcers, stomach cancer, colon cancer, etc.
- Central nervous system pathologies: brain tumours; strokes; head and spinal cord injuries.
- Respiratory system pathologies: lung cancer, pneumonia, smoker’s lungs; larynx pathologies: laryngeal cancer, laryngeal damages caused by leprosy.
- Pathologies of the urinoexcretory system: kidney tumours; kidney stones, kidney cysts.
- Other pathologies: skin pathologies, inflammations, ulcers; genital pathologies: endometrial cancer, ovarian cysts, benign prostatic hyperplasia, teratomas, etc.
- Normal anatomical prepared specimens: healthy brain and spinal cord structure; healthy kidney structure in cross section; anatomical placement of blood vessels in different parts of the body (limbs, body cavities, organs); anatomical prepared specimens of the musculoskeletal system: limbs, muscles, etc.
- Various skin disorders: eczema, dermatitis, ulcers, skin cancer, etc.
- Pathologies caused by infectious diseases: syphilis, leprosy, echinococcosis, etc.
- Goitre, head and neck pathologies.
- Genital pathologies: congenital anomalies, malignant tumours, inflammations, etc.
- Embryological exhibits
Collection compiled by the Institute of Anatomy and Anthropology and Professor M. Pilmane includes mammal embryos of various developmental periods, developmental anomalies, and exhibits of the origins of embryology in Latvia. However, the most valuable parts of the collection are human embryos with early anomalies that cover the period from the 14th to the 90th day of development.