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Multiple myeloma is a relatively rare disease, accounting for about 1% of all oncological disease cases and 13% of all haematological tumours. The incidence of this malignant neoplasia has increased in recent years both in Europe and in Latvia.

Multiple myeloma is diagnosed using a number of tests: serological, radiological, cytological, pathohistological, and laboratory tests. These not only help doctors diagnose multiple myeloma, but also determine the tactics and effectiveness of treatment.

In this study, the morphological and immunohistochemical changes of 122 patients’ bone marrow trepanobiopsy samples were analysed and compared to the patients’ clinical and laboratory indicators. The aim was to determine the most important prognostic criteria of multiple myeloma with primary diagnosis of multiple myeloma and its different stages according to the Durie-Salmon classification.

The findings of the study allowed for the conclusion that several morphological and immunohistochemical parameters were associated with worse clinical and laboratory prognostic indicators, such as beta-2 microglobulin, creatinine, calcium levels, later stages according to the Durie-Salmon classification, etc.

Tas, kur norāda bultiņa, ir mikroskopisks osteolīzes perēklis ar osteoklastu agregāciju. H/E, 200x palielinājums. Attēla autors: Jurijs Nazarovs

To predict the course of multiple myeloma, the author recommends analysing histological changes such as bone marrow cellularity, number of myeloma cells, percentage of myeloma cells with plasmablastic differentiation, type of myeloma cell infiltration, and immunohistochemical expression of aberrant and oncogenic immunohistochemical markers CD56, p53, and cyclin D1 in myeloma cells in bone marrow biopsy samples.

The correlations between clinical indicators and bone marrow microscopic findings demonstrated in this thesis will allow haematologists to choose the most adequate and individualised treatment plan.

Thesis supervisors: RSU Emeritus Prof. Regīna Kleina and RSU Prof. Sandra Lejniece.

Jurijs Nazarovs will defend his doctoral thesis “Morphological and Immunohistochemical Prognostic Factors of Multiple Myeloma and their Correlation with Clinical and Laboratory Indicators of Morbidity” will take place on 20 December 2022.
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